By Cathy Lawday
A structural syllabus mixed with child-centred actions.
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Extra resources for Get Set - Go!: Pupil's Book Level 1
For Ludolf, grammar was an important criterion of relatedness: In order to say that one language is related to another, it is necessary not only that it have some words in common with the other, but also that the grammatical structure for the greater part be the same, as one finds it in the Oriental languages, the Hebrew, Syrian, Arabic, and Ethiopian. (Cited in Diderichsen 1974:283)11 Ludolf also required basic vocabulary, as Benfey (1869:236) points out: He also shows that the corresponding words denote simple, natural items, for instance parts of the body, things we would say with regard to which it is absolutely improbable 10 11 “Et en remontant d’advantage pour y comprende les origines tant du Celtique et du Latin que du Grec, qui ont beaucoup de racines communes avec les langues Germaniques ou Celtiques, on peut conjecturer que cela vient de l’origine commune de tous ces peuples descendus des Scythes, venus de la mer Noire, qui ont pass´e le Danube et la Vistule, dont une partie pourroit estre all´ee en Gr`ece, et l’autre aura rempli la Germanie et les Gaules .
Lhuyd was considerably more sophisticated in his methods and perceptions than Jones some eighty-five years later. Johann Eberhard Fischer (1697–1771) was a philologist from W¨urttemberg and known for his Siberian expeditions and collection of linguistic materials on languages of that region. He was interested in sound correspondences involving both vowels and consonants; for example, he reported the correspondence of Hungarian f and h to p and k respectively in the other Finno-Ugric languages in his De origine Ungorum (Fischer 1770) (Muller 1986:22; Stipa 1990:185; see also Hoenigswald 1990a:124–5).
Law 1990:816)9 Significantly, Salmasius also brought Sanskrit into the emerging picture of Indo-European relationships embodied in the Scythian theory (and Boxhorn agreed with him). Of the Sanskrit words recorded by Ctesias in his fifth-century BC description of India, Salmasius observed: All the Indian utterances which have come down to us, recorded by Ctesias in his Indika, can, with only minor modification, be found in modern Persian. From this it is clear that the Indian of Ctesias is Indoscythian and it follows that either modern Persian is the descendant of the language spoken by the Indoscythians, or that the Indians of Ctesias descended from the Scythians who descended into India, whilst the people who migrated to Parthia trace their origin to the same stock.