Download Fatigue: Neural and Muscular Mechanisms by Brenda R. Bigland-Ritchie (auth.), Simon C. Gandevia, Roger PDF

By Brenda R. Bigland-Ritchie (auth.), Simon C. Gandevia, Roger M. Enoka, Alan J. McComas, Douglas G. Stuart, Christine K. Thomas, Patricia A. Pierce (eds.)

This quantity describes the present kingdom of our wisdom at the neurobiology of muscle fatigue, with attention additionally given to chose integrative cardiorespiratory mechanisms. Our cost to the authors of a number of the chapters used to be twofold: to supply a scientific evaluation of the subject which can function a balanced reference textual content for practising health-care pros, educating school, and pre-and postdoctoral trainees within the biomedi­ cal sciences; and to stimulate additional experimental and theoretical paintings on neurobiology. Key matters are addressed in 9 interrelated parts: fatigue of unmarried muscle fibers, fatigue on the neuromuscular junction, fatigue of unmarried motor devices, metabolic fatigue studied with nuclear magnetic resonance, fatigue of the segmental motor process, fatigue regarding suprasegmental mechanisms, the duty dependency of fatigue mechanisms, integrative (largely cardiorespiratory) platforms concerns, and fatigue of tailored platforms (due to getting older, under-and overuse, and pathophysiology). The product is a quantity that offers compre­ of tactics that function from the forebrain to the contractile proteins.

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Evidence for a fatigue-induced reflex inhibition of motoneuron firing rates. Journal ofNeurophysiology 58, 125-137. SECTION I Fatigue of Single Muscle Fibers While the bulk of muscle fatigue can be attributed to processes beyond the neuromuscular junction, it is the central nervous system (CNS) that actually decides when the process of muscle fatigue will occur. Chapters in this section examine the crucial processes that take place beyond the neuromuscular junction. A common definition of fatigue is used in these chapters, namely a contraction-induced reduction in the ability of the muscle to produce force and/or to shorten.

12 L - _ - . -_--' 1·0 1·2 1·4 1·6 Force (PIPo) 1·8 2·0 Figure 6. A, force-velocity relation of frog muscle fiber at rested state and moderate fatigue. lID. Positive velocities for shortening, negative velocities for lengthening. Control (0), fatigue (~); B, normalized fonn of the force-velocity relation for lengthening. Force expressed as a fraction of the isometric force measured in control and fatigue, respectively (from Curtin & Edman, 1994). of shortening in vertebrate skeletal muscle is, unlike the isometric force, independent of the degree of activation of the contractile system.

More recently, Bigland-Ritchie initiated and saw to fruition the successful development of an alternative technique for measuring human motor unit contractile properties. Intraneural motor axon stimulation permitted the first detailed measurements of the entire twitch and tetanic force responses of the popUlation of units in a muscle without signal averaging (Fig. , 1990). Moreover, it became possible to determine how the force and EMG of units respond to defined activation patterns (Fig. , 1991a,b), bringing us closer to understanding differences between human and other mammalian muscles.

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