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By Muriel Norde

Grammaticalization is a well-attested means of linguistic swap within which a lexical merchandise turns into a functionality notice, that could be additional decreased to a clitic or affix. Proponents of the universality of grammaticalization have often argued that it's unidirectional and feature therefore chanced on it a great tool in linguistic reconstruction. during this booklet Professor Norde indicates that adjust is reversible on all degrees: semantic, morphological, syntactic, and phonological. accordingly, the alleged unidirectionality of grammaticalization isn't a competent reconstructional instrument, no matter if degrammaticalization is an extraordinary phenomenon.Degrammaticalization, she argues, is largely diversified from grammaticalization: it always contains a unmarried swap, examples being shifts from affix to clitic, or from functionality observe to lexical merchandise. And the place grammaticalization might be obvious as a strategy, degrammaticalization is frequently the spinoff of different alterations. however, she exhibits that it may be defined, like grammaticalization, in a principled manner, so that it will identify no matter if a metamorphosis in a notice has been from extra to much less grammatical or vice versa, and the levels during which it has turn into so. utilizing facts from varied languages she constructs a typology of degrammaticalization adjustments. She explains why degrammaticalization is so infrequent and why a few linguists have such strongly destructive emotions in regards to the probability of its life. She provides to the certainty of grammaticalization and makes an important contribution to tools of linguistic reconstruction and the examine of language swap. She writes essentially, aiming to be understood via complex undergraduate scholars in addition to beautiful to students and graduate researchers in old linguistics.

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Publications on this line of research started to appear only shortly before this monograph was Wnished, but to me it seems a most promising new direction for grammaticalization studies. 4, I will provide an example of how a construction-based approach and a morpheme-based approach can oVer diVerent perspectives on one and the same change. 1 Processes versus results Some authors, in particular Fischer (2000), Joseph (2001, 2003, 2004) and Newmeyer (1998, 2001), have argued that grammaticalization is not a separate process of change.

Pp. 97, 98), but it is not quite clear on the basis of what criteria derivational aYxes are classiWed as either lexicalization or grammaticalization. If, however, we do make a clear distinction between the derivational aYx, the word formation process, and the derived form, I propose to consider the aYx as the result of grammaticalization, and the derived form as either the result of regular word formation or (subsequent) lexicalization (when the meaning of the derived form is no longer predictable from its component parts).

97, 98), but it is not quite clear on the basis of what criteria derivational aYxes are classiWed as either lexicalization or grammaticalization. If, however, we do make a clear distinction between the derivational aYx, the word formation process, and the derived form, I propose to consider the aYx as the result of grammaticalization, and the derived form as either the result of regular word formation or (subsequent) lexicalization (when the meaning of the derived form is no longer predictable from its component parts).

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