By Florin Balasa (auth.), Helmut E. Graeb (eds.)
Analog format Synthesis: A Survey of Topological techniques Edited by means of: Helmut E. Graeb Analog parts look on seventy five% of all chips, and reason forty% of the layout attempt and 50% of the re-designs. as a result of expanding sensible complexity of systems-on-chip, the problems in analog layout and the shortcoming of layout automation help for analog circuits make analog elements a bottleneck in chip layout. layout technique and layout automation for analog circuits consequently is an important challenge for constructing systems-on-chip and structure synthesis is a key a part of the analog layout circulation. format layout is the step of the analog layout stream with the least aid through commercially on hand, computer-aided layout instruments. This booklet offers a survey of promising new ways to computerized, analog structure layout, which were defined lately and are swiftly being followed in undefined. •Presents a entire survey of promising new equipment for automatic, analog structure layout; •Covers a range fresh of methods to topological placement of analog circuits; •Provides a complete evaluation of routing matters and strategies for analog circuits; •Provides a whole view of analog format within the layout circulate, together with retargeting an latest format for a brand new know-how, integrating structure within the sizing approach, and constraint administration; •Represents a unique, single-source connection with the most recent advances in analog format synthesis.
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Additional resources for Analog Layout Synthesis: A Survey of Topological Approaches
This section will present an algorithm using the LCS approach building a placement subject to symmetry constraints (as explained in the introduction section) from a given symmetric-feasible sequence-pair. xi ; yi / as coordinates of its left-bottom corner. The algorithm presented in this section assumes for the time being that all the devices subject to symmetry constraints belong to a single symmetry group. The implementation takes into consideration an arbitrary number of symmetry groups, though.
In our example, xsymAxis =14, corresponding to the pair (C1 ; C2 ). xk Cwk / successors (Bj ; Bk ) will receive a value d D xsymAxis 0 and 2 the abscissae of Bj and Bk computed at Step 1x will be updated: xj D xj C d , xk D xk C d , therefore shifted to the right. Proceeding bottom-up in the embedding 42 F. Balasa a b c Fig. 19 (a) Placement after the initialization traversal (Step 1x) for the symmetricfeasible sequence-pair (F1 E1 BA1 A2 XE2 YD1 ZC1 C2 D2 F2 ; F1 YD1 ZC1 C2 D2 E1 A1 A2 BXE2 F2 ).
Otherwise, the y-coordinates of the devices can be “normalized” S by replacing each of them by its index in their increasingly-ordered set S D i fyi ; yi C hi g. In this way, the y-coordinates can be considered, without loss of generality, integers in the range Œ0; n (n being the number of devices). Another important consequence of the “normalization” is the fact that the size of the priority queue will be kept minimal. For instance, in our illustrativeSexample (Fig. 19a), after the sorting and elimination of duplicates, the set S D i fyi ; yi C hi g D f0; 4; 6; 10; 12g has five elements (for the cells in the symmetry group).