By Peter P. Rogers
The main finished textbook ever written on sustainable improvement, pilot-tested around the world. assurance contains: history to sustainable improvement and international environmental matters; size and sustainability signs; environmental review, administration and coverage; methods and linkages to poverty aid; affects and infrastructure improvement; economics, intake, construction and marketplace disasters; governance; participation; catastrophe administration; overseas monetary associations; overseas environmental agreements and the function of civil society.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Sustainable Development
In fact, it is the other way around: The wealthier classes are responsible for the most serious forms of environmental degradation. By the sheer necessity of sur vival the poor may overgraze the land and deplete the forest of fuel wood, resulting in local deforestation, subsequent topsoil erosion, and surface water contamination and runoff causing flooding. However, the pollution from the nonpoor is driven by profit maximization. There is a world of difference between the two, especially in the magnitude and extent of the damage incurred.
Between 1820 and 1920, the world population doubled from one billion to two billion. However, in the subsequent 100 years, 1920 to 2020, it will climb up to eight billion, a fourfold increase (Figure 1-2). Throughout the histor y of humankind the rate of population growth has never been higher than it is now; nor is the rate likely to get any higher. It is significant that, while the overall world population is rapidly increasing, it is actually decreasing in many of the developed countries. In 1950, 40% of the world’s population lived in developed countries and 60% in developing countries.
Environmental benefits should not necessarily be maximized without satisfying economic and social constraints. • Social benefits should not be maximized without satisfying economic and environmental constraints. Operationally speaking, sustainable development is about maximizing economic, social, and environmental benefits subject to a set of constraints. ) Box 2-2. Project Types Let us consider the following typology of projects (See Box 2-1). Project A, a large-scale irrigation and flood control project with a very high benefit-to-cost ratio, favors large farmers more than poor farmers, and causes waterborne and snailborne diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis.