By Richard L. Bechtold
The time period "alternative gasoline" has been used to explain any gasoline prompt to be used in transportation autos except fuel or diesel gas. This booklet covers a variety of fuels, together with alcohols, gases, and vegetable oils. The ebook provides the basics had to comprehend the actual and chemical homes of other fuels, and the way they influence refueling approach layout and amendment of latest garages for security. As such, it's a mixture of reference and normal consultant for engineers and fleet managers whose task is to enforce substitute gas cars.
desk of Contents
1. replacement Fuels and Their Origins
2. houses and standards
three. fabrics Compatibility
four. garage and meting out
five. Refueling Facility deploy and storage Facility ameliorations
6. word list of phrases
in regards to the writer
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Extra info for Alternative Fuels Guidebook - Properties, Storage, Dispensing, and Vehicle Facility Modifications
Vehicle Emissions Characteristics Propane shares several emissions advantages with natural gas and has some additional ones of its own. Like natural gas, propane vehicles do not have any evaporative or running loss emissions associated with the fuel. Unburned hydrocarbons from propane are easier to oxidize in oxidation catalysts than methane, which results in low unburned hydrocarbon emissions. 26]. Being a gas, propane mixes very well with the air before entering the engine, resulting in low carbon monoxide emissions, 10 "Gasoline-equivalent" refers to equal energy in terms of gallons of gasoline.
17. , "Development and Use of the GREET Model to Estimate Fuel-Cycle Energy Use and Emissions of Various Transportation Technologies and Fuels," Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill. 18. , April 15, 1992. 19. S. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Energy, June 1993. 20. , September 1996. 21. , "Emissions with E85 and Gasolines in Flexible/ Variable Fuel Vehicles-The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program," SAE Paper No. , 1995. 22. S. Department of Energy, "Monthly Energy Review-October 1995," DOE/EIA-0035(95/10), Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use.
228, No. 1, January 1973. 33. S. Chemical Industry," Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 74, No. 26, June 24, 1996. 34. S. Department of Energy, "Monthly Energy Review-July 1996," DOE/ EIA-0035(96/07), Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use. 35. S. Department of Energy Report DOE/CS/51212-1, Vol. 3, May 1983. 36. , "Ford's 1996 Crown Victoria Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicle," SAE Paper No. , 1995. 42 Chapter Two Properties and Specifications The properties of a fuel define its physical and chemical characteristics.