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By J. C. Senez (auth.), Sevastianos Roussos, B. K. Lonsane, Maurice Raimbault, Gustavo Viniegra-Gonzalez (eds.)

G.HAINNAUX Departement Milieu et Activites Agricoles, Centre ORSTOM, 911 street d' Agropolis, B.P. 5045, 34032 Montpellier Cedex , France. stable country fermentation, popularly abbreviated as SSF, is at present investigated through many teams through the international. The research of this method was once principally overlooked some time past in eu and Western international locations and there's now a excessive call for for SSF, which means in nutrition, atmosphere, agricultural, phannaceutical and lots of different biotechnological purposes. It supplies me pride to notice that the significance of this system used to be realised at my division long ago in 1975 due to the fact that then, our crew has positioned targeted efforts on constructing this method. xvii Foreword Advances in reliable nation Fermentation Foreword M. PUYGRENIER Agropolis Valorisation, road d' Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex five, France. at the identify of the clinical neighborhood, i need to specific the want that this foreign Symposium on SSF may be profitable. reliable kingdom Fermentation is a part of biotechnology learn. It is composed on seeding strong tradition medium with micro organism or fungi (filamentous or larger) and on generating, during this medium (solid parts and exudates) metabolites and excessive price items. in truth, this technique is especially previous. In older industries such the foodstuff and agricultural, this method has been widely used. An instance of this is often the construction of red meat sausages and Roquefort cheese. Pharmaceutical can make large use of SSF within the construction of secondary metabolites of many varieties and improvement during this path is quickly expected.

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The results of these extensive investigations demonstrated that first, the contaminant bacteria are neither pathogenic nor toxic and, secondly, their population is stable over time. Why? Because, in fact, this aSSOCIatIOn between different microrganisms, especially between bacteria and yeasts, is for mutuals benefits. Particularly, the contaminant bacteria, in the case of petroleum fermentation, produce biotin and which helps in the development of yeasts. Contaminant bacteria also eliminate fatty acids, which are accumulated during degradation of petroleum, which otherwise would have inhibited yeast growth.

In the second case, metabolite production is very often correlated and is proportional to the biomass quantity. Therefore, in order to optimize a metabolite production, especially a secondary metabolite, it is necessary to optimize the microbial growth. However in some cases, for example, when the process concerns the protein enrichment of a by-product, it is important to know the quantity of protein produced, and the biomass estimation in the strict sense, is not of interest. In the same way, the optimization of the production of an enzyme, which is related to the growth of the micro-organism, can be carried out without the measurement of biomass.

DESGRANGES2 1 Developing Platform in Biotechnology, INRA (LRSA), 17 Rue Sully, 21034 Dijon, France. 2 NPP, Av. L. Blum Prolongee, Parc d'activites Pau-Pyrenees, 64000 Pau, France. SUMMARY During a solid state fermentation process, the microorganisms are intimately bound to a solid matrix, which poses difficulties for biomass measurements. Unlike submerged fermentation, fungal biomass cannot be quantitatively separated from the solid medium, and hence, direct measurements are impossible. A brief survey of the different indirect manual biochemical methods, described by several authors, is given, along with the description of four selected biochemical methods (glucosamine, ergosterol, total sugar, carbohydrate consumption).

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