By Peter Gatrell
"... a sign contribution to a becoming literature on a phenomenon that has develop into tragically pervasive within the twentieth century.... This hugely unique account combines exemplary empirical examine with the really apt program of different easy methods to discover the far-reaching ramifications of 'a complete empire walking.'" -- Vucinich Prize citation"An very important contribution not just to fashionable Russian background but additionally to an ongoing repositioning of Russia in broader ecu and international old processes.... elegantly written... hugely innovative." -- Europe-Asia experiences Drawing on formerly unused archival fabric in Russia, Latvia, and Armenia and on insights from social and demanding concept, Peter Gatrell considers the origins of displacement and its political implications and offers a detailed research of humanitarian projects and the relationships among refugees and the groups within which they settled.
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Extra resources for A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies)
Several dozen Ukrainian Uniate church leaders and other local notables—including the famous Ukrainian historian Michael Hrushevsky, as well as the metropolitan of the Uniate church—were deported to Siberia. 27 A particularly harsh fate befell the Jewish population of Galicia. 30 Nor did Ianushkevich spare German peasants who had lived in Galicia for several generations. They were unceremoniously told to pack their bags and move eastward. 31 To cap four months in which military disasters outnumbered Russian successes, the Transcaucasus also became a theater of war, following the Ottoman bombardment of Russia’s Black Sea ports in October 1914.
143 Population displacement was ultimately caused by the advance of German and Austrian troops into Russian territory. But this explains little of the intensity and character of displacement. Although those who found an explanation in terms of “spontaneity” deliberately or unwittingly camou®aged the active intervention of Russia’s own armed forces, the part played by the Russian army in this dramatic upheaval was evident to any objective observer. Jews and Germans left involuntarily by order of Russian military commanders, who were acting out of a warped belief in the political unreliability of these ethnic minorities and, in the case of Ianushkevich, in the hope of rewarding outstanding Russian soldiers.
The quality of roads in European Russia and in Poland left much to be desired, and during the autumn rains many of them turned into quagmires, trapping the wheels of carts, which were often abandoned. Roads jammed with retreating troops made it impossible for refugees to move at anything other than a snail’s pace. 128 Those who went east by road had to ¤nd or make what shelter they could. 129 By no means all refugees retreated meekly and quietly to the Russian interior. Throughout the late summer of 1915, generals and ministers alike expressed concern about the disruption and public disturbances that characterized refugees’ movement eastward, particularly when they traveled on foot.