By David Hunter
A pragmatic advent to severe considering throughout quite a few disciplines
Knowing easy methods to imagine seriously approximately what to think and what to do is key for achievement in either educational environments. a pragmatic consultant to serious pondering introduces readers to the recommendations, equipment, and criteria for considering seriously approximately purposes and arguments in nearly any quarter of perform. whereas so much literature on serious considering makes a speciality of its formal functions inside philosophy, this ebook bargains a extensive notion of severe considering and explores its useful relevance to accomplishing examine throughout a large choice of disciplines, together with enterprise, schooling, and the organic sciences.
While the ebook pursues an interdisciplinary method of severe pondering, supplying examples and illustrations from assorted matters and fields of study, it additionally presents recommendations to aid readers determine the equipment and criteria which are attribute of serious considering of their selected branches of studying, of their office, and of their personal lives. the concept that of a controversy is prolonged past its philosophical roots to incorporate experimentation, checking out, size, coverage improvement and overview, and aesthetic appreciation as actions that require severe pondering. The logical, middle innovations of serious pondering are provided in a rigorous but casual means, with artistic and useful suggestions for outlining, studying, and comparing purposes and arguments anyplace they're came across. every one bankruptcy ends with a "Mistakes to Avoid" part in addition to quite a few routines designed to aid readers combine and expand the chapter's lessons.
A useful consultant to severe pondering is a superb publication for classes on serious pondering and common sense on the upper-undergraduate and graduate degrees. it's also a suitable reference for a person with a common curiosity in severe pondering talents.
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe
In chapters 5 and 6, we will compare these different ways of drawing conclusions from the evidence we already have, and study some methods for telling when our reasoning is good. 4 Good Reasons Are Sufficient and Acceptable A belief is justified enough for knowledge only if it is based on good enough reasons. Two features are essential to good reasons. First, the reasons have to be sufficient to support the belief. Second, the reasons have themselves to be acceptable. In later chapters, we will have a lot to say about both these features of good reasons.
O u r real concern is with justification anyway and not with belief. Critical thinking is concerned with the kinds of reasons that are needed to know something. There is another reason to follow the philosophical tradition here. If we separate off too sharply what we know from what we believe, then we run the risk of overlooking the fact that even our religious and moral beliefs need to be based on good reasons. It is true that we have and should cherish freedom of belief. Being able to form our beliefs free from outside interference and coercion is fundamental to h u m a n fulfillment.
This kind of response is fine if what is intended is that everyone is allowed to m a k e up their own minds about what to believe or do. But if the point is that we can both be right even when we disagree, then this is a mistake that we should avoid, unless there is excellent reason to think otherwise. Appeal to Emotion It is a mistake to base our beliefs only on our emotions. For a belief to be justified enough for knowledge it must be based on good epistemic reasons. Epistemic reasons are reasons to think that the belief is true.