By Charles H. Drummond III
This factor features a number of papers offered on the 72nd convention on Glass difficulties on the Ohio nation collage, Columbus, Ohio. issues coated contain glass melting; refractories; technique keep watch over; laws protection, and emissions; recycling and batch wetting.
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Extra resources for 72nd Conference on Glass Problems. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 33, Issue 1
The evaporation rates will also decrease. 5. 8 GJ/ton molten glass, depending on the cullet% in the batch. 5 GJ/ton are possible when applying batch & cullet preheating. The NOx emissions can be reduced at the same time by changes in port and combustion chamber design, optimization of burner settings and number of burners in combination with tight control of O2 and CO values in the exhaust gases. Values below 600-650 mg/Nm3 are feasible, depending on the CO-level permitted in the flue gases (the acceptable CO level depends on the choice of refractory materials in the checkers).
143162 Ed. Charles Drummond III, Am. Ceram. Soc. (2009) Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publication 12. M. Lindig: Das Integrierte Konzept zur Gemengebehandlung am Ofen. 85. Glastech. Tagung, Saarbrücken, 30. Mai-1. Juni 2011, Kurzfassungen, pp. 4I-42 13. A. Lankhorst, H. van Limpt, A. Habraken, R. Beerkens: Simulation study of impact furnace design on specific energy consumption, NOx emission levels, volatilization rates and refractory corrosion. 10th ESG Conference and 84th Annual DGG meeting, Glass Trend seminar on Glass Furnaces and Refractory Materials, 30.
A nozzle diameter of around 45 mm in this case resulted in natural gas velocities of about 50 m/s and seems to be the optimum according to the modeling results. According to these results, using burner nozzles with large diameters instead of small diameters also leads to lower sodium evaporation rates. Burner antde For this specific case, an almost horizontal burner angle seems to be optimal. Normally a burner angle between 8 and 10 degrees is optimal for energy efficiency, in combination with low-NOx flames.