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Air Pollution and its Effects. Air Pollution, Edition: by Arthur C. Stern (Eds.)

By Arthur C. Stern (Eds.)

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Additional info for Air Pollution and its Effects. Air Pollution, Edition: Second Edition

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This detailed summary of observa­ tions on sulfur dioxide from a specific industrial source reviews a prob­ lem which has occurred and been resolved in a number of locations. Available evidence (32) from continuous measurements of acid aero­ sol as well as S 0 2 in the atmosphere indicates the predominance of sulfur dioxide over sulfur trioxide in the air. 2 ^g/m 3 respec­ tively. With corrections for differing sampling efficiency of S 0 2 and S0 3 , the ratio is estimated to be about 100 to 1.

GASEOUS POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR 27 Ozone and some nitrogen oxides are produced in the upper atmo­ sphere by solar irradiation, and small concentrations of these gases are transported to the lower atmosphere at the earth's surface. In addition, small amounts of both gases result from lightning, naturally caused forest fires, and other natural phenomena. 04 ppm of ozone {5-7). Trace amounts of ammonia enter normal air from the decay of animal and vegetable matter. In summary, Table I contains good estimates of the concentrations in parts per million of the major and several minor gaseous components of the earth's normal dry atmosphere at the surface level.

On some days this condition may be replaced by an elevated precursor concentration which is more or less constant during a 24-hour period. One of the early measurements of total organics (including hydro- 2. GASEOUS POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR 35 carbons) in polluted air by freeze-out at liquid oxygen temperature was reported by Shepherd et al. (23). 5 ppm total organic material. 0 ppm. Analysis of the condensate by mass spectrometry revealed so many chemical entities in the mixture as to lead to the statement: ".

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